Trading Confluence

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Trading With Confluence

Last updated on February 28th, 2020

If we agree that traders use different but often common methods of looking at a chart, then is it possible to use that information for a higher probability trade?

The answer is a resounding YES!

Think of this….if many people are looking at “X” and then something happens at “X”, expect a reaction.

If many people are looking at “Y”, expect a reaction.

What if “X” and “Y” meet and you get twice as many people looking at the same thing

In trading, we call it a confluence.

When two or more variables are present, a confluence exists and these areas are ripe for the picking.

Confluence: A gathering, flowing, or meeting together at one juncture or point

Trading Confluence

Think of traders who trade moving averages such as the 20 SMA. The general trade plan is to look for pullbacks or rally to the moving average and then take a trade in the direction of the trend.

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Support and resistance traders look for price to move to their zone, hold, and then trigger them into a trade.

Fibonacci remains a popular method as well and is generally used for clustering of levels or other confluences

Let’s plot a few things on the chart and see if anything lines up.

I wanted to keep things very rigid and unless price pulled right into the confluence, I placed an X to indicate that close is not close enough. While price may have hit one of the variables, to keep a strict trading plan we would require price to be in the entire zone.

Pointing out the blue box which coincides with the biggest drop makes things interesting. Not shown on the chart but price is hitting the 100 period SMA, pulling into a Fibonacci area, and an area that was former support.

Do you get in on every trade? No and that is one of the good things about looking for a few variables to come in line and that is….less trading.

Confluence In Many Forms

There are many ways and tools you can use to find a confluence of factors to influence your trading decisions.

From simple price structure to indicator usages, the list of combinations is virtually endless.

This chart shows a keltner channel, trend line, 50 SMA, and 100% projections of prior swings.

To make our plays rigid, we require price to show us strength by breaking above the channel before we’d be interested in a pullback trade. You could also use smaller trend line channel to indicate strength.

  1. We need price to almost touch our 100% projection and only after price moves outside the top of the channel.
  2. The top of the channel must be penetrated.
  3. These lines are for a visual clue for this article as to which corrective swing we are using for our projections.
  4. Our 50 SMA must come in to close proximity of the pullback.
  5. Price need not touch the trend line but again, must come within a reasonable distance.

To keep things fair, I’ve discounted areas that didn’t have a line up of all our variables. In real trading, you’d attempt to stay in the trend until you determine the current up move has potential for a deep correction or even a total trend change.

This would limit your need for trade entries as you ride the move from your initial trigger.

Confluence Of Stops

One group of people who use confluence very well are those with the big money. What they like is a confluence of obvious swing levels, range levels, and the group of traders who like tight stops for bigger position sizing. They like to use a confluence of traders decisions and tendencies.

We’ve all been in a trade where price starts in our direction, changes direction taking out a low, our stop, and then continuing in our direction.

Even better, price exhibits a sharp move and pulls in counter-trend traders who quickly see their position underwater and are forced to exit.

Understand that the larger players can’t simply accumulate or close their positions any time they choose. Well, they obviously can but at slippage amounts they’d prefer not to have.

The best place to do business for them is at areas where liquidity is added to the market. One good place is where a cluster of stops will likely be.

  • Trigger stops
  • Accumulate/liquidate
  • Prevent excessive slippage

Another area is at levels where counter-trend traders enter the market.

  • Push price counter to the overall bias
  • Bring in those looking to pick tops and bottoms
  • Reverse the direction and stop them out

This weekly charts overall bias is to the upside I used a daily chart to draw the trend lines.

The daily price ranged near the stop of the trend line, formed a smaller range inside the range, and then price slammed hard. There is a strong break of the trend line which is a sign for counter-trend traders to pile on the down move.

Price drops lower and the bigger players begin to accumulate at lower prices. Their buying forces the market higher causing the counter-trends to hit the panic button and exit and in doing so, add liquidity to the market which the bigger players scoop up.

Confluence Keeps You Patient

If you require a few factors to line up to interest you in a trade, you will probably be safe from the pitfalls of over trading. I don’t think having redundancy as part of your confluence system is a good thing though. Having several trend indicators, momentum indicators, channels, trend lines, and structure is overkill.

For pullback traders, having a structure point or some other tool to measure a pullback keeps you from taking those that are shallow and weak. Using a momentum indicator can show you when the rate of change in price is turning in your favor. Using a handful of tools is enough to pinpoint an area of confluence that has the potential for you to enter a trade.

Break out traders, may look for a range and need to see a range form inside the range. Perhaps they will need to see failure tests of lows or highs to validate the range and flushes in the opposing direction.

Looking for a confluence will keep you out of the “fear of missing out” and ensure you only take planned out trading opportunities and not be seduced by the price moves alone.

As with all trading plans, the key is testing and consistency before you decide to put the money on the line.

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Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

Confluence areas in Forex trading are defined as places where more than one pattern shows the same direction.Technical analysis is one of the reasons why retail traders come to the currency market.

The ability of patterns to help predict future prices has always fascinated traders and people alike.

Since the early days of stock market in the United States, traders noted that the price forms similar patterns before significant advances or declines. In today’s language, it is said that the market “builds energy” before continuing or reversing a trend.

Simply put, it consolidates due to a lack of direction.

Confluence areas in Forex trading aren’t only technical in nature. Traders find it more comfortable to trade technical patterns in the same direction as fundamental analysis points to.

That’s a confluence area that supports a trade, as it blends both technical and fundamental aspects.

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Confluence Areas in Forex Trading and What to Expect

In this article we’ll cover everything about confluence areas in Forex trading, using concepts like:

  • classic technical analysis patterns
  • Japanese technical analysis reversal and continuation patterns
  • classic and dynamic support and resistance
  • where does fundamental analysis fit in
  • how to combine different technical analysis concepts to find confluence areas in Forex trading

More importantly, we’ll focus on showing how to find the path of least resistance for future trades. As always, discipline is critical, second to nothing in Forex trading.

Support and resistance areas are key when looking for confluence. When traders use too many technical indicators or oscillators, it is said that the chart becomes crowded.

Remember: Too many technical tools won’t help the analysis.

However, this is not the case when looking for confluence areas in Forex trading. In doing that, the more elements pointing to the same direction, the better.

Support and Resistance – Key to Find Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

The price of a currency pair meets two types of support and resistance: classic and dynamic.

Classic means support or resistance forms on the horizontal. Think of double or triple tops and bottoms, for instance, as the most representative forms of classic support and resistance.

Dynamic, on the other hand, is more powerful. Because it’s ability to follow the price action, dynamic support and resistance levels weigh more in the eyes of the technical traders.

However, the balance of power changes when support and resistance combine with other patterns to form confluence areas in Forex trading.

For instance, classic patterns forming at a dynamic level weigh more in the overall analysis. Contrary, two or more reversal patterns at a classic support or resistance will confirm the reversal.

Finding Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

The problem with most technical analysis concepts is that they lack practical examples. We’ll try to overcome that by using as many examples as possible to illustrate the importance of confluence areas in Forex trading.

For instance, the chart below shows one of the most powerful and famous reversals in recent times. The USDJPY broke higher after the U.S. election showed Trump winning the White House.

The market broke higher in an almost vertical line. After the initial disappointment, investors took a closer look at Trump’s presidential agenda, and the dollar exploded higher.

What’s interesting is the area where it bounced. Have a closer look at it, as it shows essential characteristics.

Firstly, it took more than four months. In other words, there is no excuse to miss the price action and the potential reversal patterns that formed there.

Secondly, remember that confluence areas in Forex trading aren’t just given by trendlines and channels. Instead, such areas form when the price finds it difficult to advance or decline regardless the reason.

Triple Bottom at a Confluence Area

The first thing to note is a triple bottom that formed at the highlighted area. Forex traders have a saying: “triple tops and bottoms rarely hold.”

Well, in this case, it held, and it is a pattern representative for the currency market.

The original concept of a triple bottom calls for the price to hesitate at the same level. However, this is difficult in today’s Forex trading due to the heightened volatility levels and five-digit quotations.

As mentioned earlier, confluence areas in Forex trading have more than one factor pointing to the same direction. In this case, the first thing to note is the triple bottom.

Triangle as a Reversal Pattern

Traders familiar with the concept of a triangle quickly noticed the pattern. As a reminder, in a triangular pattern, the market forms a series of lower highs or higher lows until eventually breaks.

In this case, the triangle becomes obvious by simply connecting the triple bottom and highlighting the lower highs. The resulting trendlines converge, showing a beautiful contracting triangle that acts as a reversal pattern.

Just like that, two reversal patterns formed at the same area. Hence, bulls had all the time in the world to prepare for a trend reversal.

What would be the best trading strategy in this case? Well, the idea is to wait for the upper side of the triangle to break. The so-called b-d trendline signals the end of the triangular formation.

This is particularly important in the case of the USDJPY chart from above because the break of the b-d trendline comes after the market put a triple bottom in place. Confluence areas in Forex trading reinforce a trading decision.

Therefore, by the moment the price broke the b-d trendline higher, traders not only had a signal to go long but the market signals the start of a bullish trend.

Steps to Trade Such Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

Here are the steps to trade such a confluence area based on the two patterns formed:

  • wait for the price to break the b-d trendline
  • place a stop loss at the last push on the triple bottom pattern
  • target a risk-reward ratio of minimum 1:3 for the trading setup to make sense
  • or target the longest measured move of the patterns part of confluence areas in Forex tradingthe triangle’s measured move is seventy-five percent of its longest segment (wave a) projected from the b-d trendline’s break
  • the triple bottom’s measured move is the highest bounce projected from that point (wave b’s length projected from the wave b’s high)

Between the two measured moves, the one that belongs to the triple bottom is the longest, giving a target that shows a much bigger risk-reward ratio than the desired 1:3.

What’s more important to such confluence areas in Forex trading is that they effectively tell the fundamental story. Because the break of the b-d trendline happened BEFORE the U.S. election, many thought the other candidate would win.

However, the risk-off sentiment associated with Trump’s possibility to win quickly dissipated, making room for a strong advance. Put it just, the USDJPY broke on risk-on and advanced on market participants realizing the potential.

Psychological Levels Part of Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

Besides classic support and resistance areas, psychological levels in Forex trading come to complete the picture. Look for round numbers to influence levels due to the human nature tendency to enter or exit at round numbers.

In this case, the 100-mark proved to be a terrific support for the USDJPY pair.

In other words, the price built the triple bottom on the psychological one-hundred mark. At this time, the confluence area had:

  • one triple bottom
  • a contracting triangle as a reversal pattern
  • one psychological level

Was there anything else to consider that can support confluence areas in Forex trading like this one?

Japanese Candlesticks Reversal Patterns

Because of the triangle and the triple bottom are reversal patterns, any other reversal pattern comes to help. Hence, in such an instance, look for Japanese reversal patterns around the psychological level to reinforce the bouncing potential.

Such patterns are:

Japanese candlesticks patterns are known for taking very little time to form. All the patterns listed above take one, two or maximum three candlesticks to form.

Hence, they provide a quick bias over the future direction, while the classic technical analysis patterns (e.g., the triangle and the triple bottom) keep forming. To spot the Japanese patterns, traders need to “dig in.”

More precisely, to zoom in and scrutinise the area.

A quick look reveals a Doji candle is forming right towards the end of the last triangle’s segment. That’s a very powerful reversal patterns belonging to Japanese candlesticks. When it forms during confluence areas in Forex trading, it further strengthens the forecast.

As the majority of my followers know, I am strictly a price action trader and you can find more about my trading strategy HERE

Fundamental Analysis to Complement Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

While technical analysis gives the direction, the fundamental analysis offers the reason why the market moves. Many believe that one without the other just doesn’t work in Forex trading or investing in general.

Before important economic data like the NFP (Non-Farm Payrolls) markets take the time to consolidate. But markets also consolidate before critical political events, like the U.S. election.

For the entire summer, no trader wanted to take a chance on the dollar. Everyone looked at polls and how Hillary or Trump performed.

As it turned out, any indication that Clinton will win the election was associated with a risk-on move. More precisely, with the USDJPY moving higher.

Hence, the break higher above the b-d trendline came as a fundamental reaction to a risk-on move. Or, it came to complete the technical picture.

Confluence areas in Forex trading that combine the technical and fundamental picture are difficult to ignore. In fact, traders look for both to complement the original trading scenario.

Support and Resistance Using the Apex of a Contracting Triangle

The secret to finding confluence areas in Forex trading is to know where to look for them. In the example used so far, the psychological level is enough to spark an interest.

As such, traders waited to see the market reaction on the psychological level. Next, they waited for potential reversal patterns to form. And it did: triple bottom, triangle, and the Doji candle.

Finally, they WAITED for the b-d trendline to break higher on fundamental analysis confirmation. Therefore, the trade opportunity was a result of a combination of factors aligned at a confluence area.

Now that the market bounced from the psychological level (all of them are horizontal – hence, they offer classic support and resistance), where should the focus be? The answer comes from the left side of the chart.

Traders use the info given by previous patterns and project levels on the right side of the chart to find areas where the price might hesitate. Yes, might, because nothing happens with absolute certainty.

Important: This is why all trades must have a stop loss.

Using the Apex of Contracting Triangles to Find Confluence Areas in Forex Trading

Wonderful technical analysis patterns, contracting triangles often appear in the currency market. Traders use them as either continuation or reversal patterns, focusing on the moment when the price breaks the b-d trendline.

However, that’s info related to the actual trading.

But triangles also project future support and resistance levels. That’s especially the case for triangles that act as continuation patterns.

Traders using this method use the apex of a contracting triangle that served as a continuation pattern to project future support and resistance levels.

Because the area is known in advance, traders use such places to find confluence areas in Forex trading.

The same USDJPY timeframe saw an earlier contracting triangle that broke higher. Therefore, it acted as a continuation pattern.

Following the Bank of Japan (BOJ) decision to buy JGB’s (Japanese Government Bonds) in a process called quantitative easing, the USDJPY broke higher. The triangle forming around the 120-level proved to be a great continuation pattern.

Speaking of triangles as continuation patterns, in the Elliott Waves Theory, they form only as:

  • 4 th waves in impulsive moves
  • B-waves in zigzags
  • X-waves of various degrees

Therefore, if one uses the Elliott Theory to count waves, the brown triangle can be only one of the three waves mentioned above.

The apex of a contracting triangle is the intersection point of the two trendlines that form the triangle. More precisely, if the triangle is labeled a-b-c-d-e, the apex point sits at the a-c and b-d intersection.

Technical analysis concepts tell us the apex offer strong support and resistance levels are moving forward. That is the area of the apex, not exactly the level.

Hence, when the market broke higher from the confluence area discussed in this article, traders already had an educated guess where it might hesitate. You’ve guessed right: at the area given by the apex of the previous contracting triangle.

The brown line in the chart above shows the apex’s level. It remains there on the chart to act as a support or resistance for future price action.

In this case, as the market shot higher from the previous confluence area, savvy traders waited for the reaction at the possible resistance. Even the most bullish traders booked some profits when the price reached the apex.

What if it turns?

Because of the relative big timeframe (this is the daily chart), there is plenty of time to look for elements part of a confluence area. The process is similar to what we’ve discussed so far in this article.

  • use a horizontal area that has chances to offer support or resistance
  • look for classic reversal patterns around the area
  • zoom in to find out possible Japanese reversal patterns
  • position according to the findings

Not only that the market formed a double top around the apex of the contracting triangle, but it also created a shooting star at the second swing that marked the double top.

So, there you go, three elements coming together in the same area:

  • the apex of the contracting triangle
  • double top
  • shooting star

It is impossible to remain on the long side with all this in place on the daily timeframe. Therefore, the focus shifts on how to trade on the short side from this moment on.

As it turned out, the market reversed quite aggressively, almost reversing the entire move higher caused by the U.S. Presidential elections.

Conclusion

Confluence areas in Forex trading are for traders that like to plan their trades carefully. They look for more than one element to confirm their bias.

In the first example used in this article, the bias was bullish. The one-hundred level was supposed to attract the price, and it did.

Next, traders looked at what kind of patterns form around the classic support level. It turned out the market formed reversal patterns, so the bullish bias was confirmed by the price action.

The second example used the same approach to finding short trades as the apex of the contracting triangle proved to be strong resistance.

The reversal patterns part of confluence areas in Forex trading give traders the rules to trade such areas.

As all reversal patterns have a trading strategy behind them, traders know what to do and how to trade confluence areas in Forex trading.

As you are aware, I am using a strictly price action trading strategy, which incorporates the market element like no other strategy.

If you have enjoyed this article, you might as well like to check out my article about Candlesticks

If you want to continue your learning experience, check out my professional trading course

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Использование JIRA и Confluence в большом проекте

Начало нового проекта как правило сопровождается решением массы организационных вопросов: как будут взаимодействовать участники проекта, где будут храниться документы и как будет построено их согласование, как будут ставить задачи и выдавать поручения… В каждой компании, у каждого руководителя проектов, уже есть заготовки и предпочтения. Но всегда полезно посмотреть, как это делают другие. Поэтому предлагаю познакомиться с примером из практики, который вышел весьма удачным.

Для организации работы проектной команды необходим единый информационный центр, с помощью которого решаются следующие задачи:

  • Хранить проектные документы
  • Вести рабочие материалы: протоколы, риски, открытые вопросы
  • Информировать участников о правилах, событиях, планах
  • Вести всевозможные реестры — задач, бизнес-процессов, разработок (Excel — не самый лучший инструмент для коллективной работы)
  • Раздавать задания и поручения
  • Собирать информацию по выполнению задач и поручений

Есть бесконечное число вариантов решения — вместе или по отдельности. Мы использовали связку Confluence + JIRA, и это было удобно и эффективно.

Портал проекта — Confluence
Confluence — это удобный и продвинутый wiki движок от компании Atlassian. Он позволяет организовать внутренний интернет портал и дать доступ к нему всем пользователям — для редактирования или для чтения.

  • Он очень прост и удобен, для обучения достаточно нескольких часов. У нас на проекте странички создавали и редактировали почти все участники.
  • Довольно богатые возможности форматирования, необходимые для того чтобы сделать страничку красивой и легко читаемой. Есть средства, автоматизирующие создание навигации внутри сайта — оглавления, таблицы, ссылки, включения отрывков из других страниц и т.д.
  • Написано огромное количество плагинов для расширения функциональности.
  • Можно хранить документы, при этом сохраняются версии. По умолчанию пользователь берет всегда последнюю версию, что снижает количество ошибок. В любой момент можно можно вернуться к любой из предыдущих версий.
  • Также сохраняются версии страниц, и всегда можно увидеть, кто и какие изменения внес, сравнивая любые две версии попарно.
  • Можно ограничивать доступ в целом на сайт проекта или на отдельную страницу.
  • Полнотекстовый поиск осуществляется по всем страницам и вложенным документам портала, включая pdf.

Мы сделали на Confluence проектный портал, домашняя страничка которого содержала ссылки на ключевые материалы проекта, контактную карту, регламенты и инструкции. На этой же странице публиковались все новости проекта. Управляли содержанием страницы администраторы и руководители проекта.

Проектный портал содержал все проектные материалы, часть которых мы сделали в виде иерархии страниц.

Верхний уровень иерархии — это этапы проекта. На каждом этапе создали страницы-ключевые задачи этапа. Причем на каждой странице — описание задачи, каково ее содержание, зачем она необходима, кто ее выполняет, приложены шаблоны документов.

Все контрактные документы, которые должны сдаваться в качестве результатов проекта, выкладывали на соответствующую страницу в Word, Excel или pdf. Таким образом все проектные материалы, были в одном месте, структурированы, и не было путаницы с версиями.

Масса полезной информации мы организовали в виде специальных страниц. Например, для большой команды крайне популярной является контактная карта, на которой у нас был список проектной команды по группам, с фотографиями и данными участников.

Страница со ссылками на экземпляры системы поддерживались системными администраторами. Там же была схема эволюции технической инфраструктуры — когда какие экземпляры появлялись и выводились из эксплуатации.

Процедуры и регламенты

Собрание всех инструкций и проектных регламентов на портале, в актуальном и удобном для чтения виде позволяет экономить на объяснениях новым участникам и бороться с отговорками «не прочитал, не нашел, не видел». Когда вопрос все-таки возникает, можно выслать ссылку на страничку, чтобы не пересылать документ и тратить время на его поиск. Версия — всегда актуальная, т.к. обновление происходит непосредственно на портале.

Риски и открытые вопросы

Мы вели на портале риски и открытые вопросы. На каждый риск или вопрос мы заводили отдельную страницу, по заранее созданному шаблону. На странице риска, кроме обязательных названия и классификаторов, было подробное описание содержания, последствий, а также план действий со сроками и ответственными, и статус риска. Примерно так же были организованы открытые вопросы.

Специальная страница автоматически собирала список страниц с рисками, образуя таким образом реестр рисков.

Просматривая список можно перейти на соответствующую страницу, прочитать описание риска и посмотреть план действий по нему.

План действий может представлять из себя простой текст, задачу в Confluence или ссылку на задачу в JIRA.

Рассмотрим варианты, которые можно использовать, которые позволяют напоминать о действиях участникам и контролировать их исполнение.

Задача в Confluence — это отдельная сущность, которую можно добавить на страницу. Напоминание о задаче высвечивается для пользователя, когда он входит на портал, значком в правом верхнему углу. Кликнув по этому значку пользователь переходит к списку своих поручений. Когда задача выполнена, он ставит галочку, и статус задачи меняется за завершенный.

Однако так же точно можно снять галочку и задача опять становится не выполненной. Поэтому такая система выглядит не очень надежно и контроль за поручениями в этом случае слабый.

Второй вариант — использование для поручений задач в JIRA. Непосредственно со страницы проектного портала можно создать задачу в JIRA, назначить ответственного и установить срок исполнения. Для этого мы сделали специальный макрос, срабатывающий по кнопке Создать поручение.

В отличие от предыдущего варианта эта задача может быть настроена так, чтобы ее мог закрыть только ответственный, отличный от исполнителя, что дает хороший контроль ее выполнения.

Практика, которой мы придерживались, помогала нам сохранять все решения, которые мы принимали на совещаниях. В ходе каждого совещания мы вели протоколы непосредственно на портале проекта. В начале каждого совещания мы создавали новую страницу протокола на основании шаблона, и записывали основные моменты по ходу обсуждения. В конце формулировали решение и план действий.

Если кто-то после совещания хотел уточнить текст протокола, тот мог это сделать прямо на страничке портала, и было видно, кто и когда какие изменения внес. Протокол считался согласованным сразу после совещания, это экономило массу времени.

JIRA — Система для ведения списков, поручений, задач

JIRA создана как система регистрации и исполнения запросов на обслуживание. Однако она может быть использована для ведения любых реестров и управления любыми задачами.
В нашем проекта мы использовали JIRA для контроля исполнения поручений, ведения разработок и отслеживания задач по конвертации данных.

Ведение разработок с помощью JIRA подробно описано в статье Управление разработками. Здесь я расскажу о контроле поручений и интеграции с Confluence.

Для создания задачи JIRA из Confluence достаточно выделить текст, навести курсор на выделенный текст и нажать кнопку в контекстном меню, чтобы вызвать экран JIRA для создания задачи.

На странице протокола появится ссылка на задачу, а в задаче JIRA будет ссылка на страницу в Confluence.

Таким образом мы можем переходить между этими двумя системами, с одной стороны, чтобы уточнить состояние и историю исполнения поручения, а с другой — посмотреть контекст и причину возникновения задачи.

Интеграция между системами также помогала нам отслеживать списки открытых вопросов, связанными с разработками.

В конце проекта, когда остался список критичных разработок, которые необходимо было закрыть для завершения проекта, мы организовали его в виде таблицы на странице портала проекта, в одной из ячеек которой была ссылка на разработку в JIRA. Кроме номера задачи там отображается и текущий статус. Просматривая список мы можем видеть, какие задачи еще не закрыты, в каком состоянии они находятся, и при необходимости можем перейти к ней, чтобы увидеть всю историю и переписку по ней.

Работа с JIRA требует определенной квалификации и опыта. Здесь я описал некоторые варианты использования, однако на самом деле их гораздо больше. Прелесть в том, что можно начать с самых базовых вещей, и это уже будет работать, а затем развивать систему по мере приобретения опыта и понимания потребностей.

Кроме Confluence, в интеграции с JIRA, мы также использовали BitBucket, также продукт Atlassian — репозиторий разработок, позволяющий отслеживать версии кода. Для этих же целей на другом проекте использовали бесплатный SVN.

Множество плагинов позволяет расширять функциональность системы, в частности, для интеграции с MS Project или реализации диаграммы Гантта непосредственно в JIRA.

Большое количество вариантов использования может стать препятствием для тех, кто берется за использование этих инструментов в первый раз. В этом случае можно воспользоваться опытом других проектов, которых великое множество, либо начать с самого простого.

Организация проектного пространства с помощью JIRA и Confluence доказало свою эффективность и удобство. Ключевые преимущества — это удобство, надежность и широчайшие возможности для адаптации. На наших проектах такая системам стала стандартом де факто.

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