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Trade Finance Australia | What is Trade Finance?

What is Trade Finance?

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Trade Finance Global Australia – At the Forefront of Global Trade

Trade or export finance concerns domestic (Australia based) and international trade transactions – when a buyer purchases goods or services from a seller, the financial activities involved come under the umbrella term ‘trade finance’.

How can we help you with trade finance?

It’s our job to find you the best trade or structured finance deal from a wide range of lenders; banks and financial institutions, non-bank funders and alternative financiers who specialise in different finance sectors and markets.

We can help your business look at a range of funding options from a traditional overdraft or bank loan to a more innovative crowdfunding or alternative finance provision.

We work around the clock and get the relevant information in order to arrange your finance quickly while you focus on growing your business.

At Trade Finance Global, we can reach out to the key influencers and stakeholders at many different finance institutions to make sure your application gets through quickly and you can get funding as quickly as possible.

We’re 100% independent: working only for our businesses

Unlike some of our competitors, we are not tied to any lenders, we arrange a wealth of funding options for you so that you can choose the most appropriate solution.

Australia Trade Finance Guides

See our free Trade Finance Global Country Guides

Get in touch with our trade finance experts, even if you already have an existing facility

Want to become a finance expert? Receive our free trade finance training

The Benefits of Trade Finance at Trade Finance Global

  • Facilitates growth of an SME – Increased working capital and better cash flow management allows business owners to improve their control of the day-to-day running costs of the business whilst fulfilling larger orders that previously wouldn’t be possible.
  • Higher profit margins – A finance facility can allow an SME to buy in bulk or volume, up front (at reduced costs) and strengthens the relationship between buyers and sellers. This can be an opportunity to increase profit margins and EBITDA.
  • Greater efficiency and productivity – Working with other international players allows business owners to diversify their supplier network which increases competition and drives efficiency in markets and supply chains.
  • Reduces bankruptcy risks – Late payments from debtors, bad debts, excess stock and demanding creditors can have detrimental effects on an SME. External financing or revolving credit facilities can ease this pressure and prevent an SME from facing these risks.

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Trade Finance – Knowledge Hub

Trade Finance Guide

Hub Articles

  • Why will 2020 be a great year for trade finance
  • Top 10 Questions a Trade Financier Asks
  • What is Structured Trade Finance?
  • Trade finance and the UCP 600
  • Trade finance versus export finance

Why 2020 will be a great year for trade finance

It would be remiss of us to say that 2020 didn’t go without challenges and unexpected outcomes. However, we believe that 2020 will see strong momentum in trade and supply chain finance. The increase in the digitalisation of trade finance (be that through blockchain or electronic processes), as well as the step change of approach around AML, KYC and anti-terrorism will certainly flow into 2020.

10 Trade Finance Questions and our Answers

Given that the TFG trade finance team speaks to funders, banks, people looking to trade and open Letters of Credit, we’ve put together a list of 10 questions that are commonly asked or raised during the process of trading goods and/ or services overseas.

Structured Trade Finance

Structured trade finance products are used primarily in the commodity sector by traders, producers and processors. Banking corporations tailor these financing arrangements based on the needs of the client. Structured trade products are mainly warehouse financing, working capital financing and pre-export financing. Also, some institutions extend reserve based lending and finance the conversion of raw materials into products amongst other bespoke finance products. Structured trade finance products are extended across the supply chain to facilitate trading activities.

How is trade finance governed and what is the UCP 600?

The UCP 600 (“Uniform Customs & Practice for Documentary Credits”) is the official publication which is issued by the ICC (International Chamber of Commerce). It is a body of rules on the issuance and use of a letter of credit and applies to 175 countries. The aim has been to standardise a set of rules aimed to benefit all parties during a trade finance transaction – for that reason, it is designed by industry experts rather than through legislation. The UCP was created in 1933 and has been revised by the ICC up to the point of the UCP600. The UCP600 came into force on 1 July 2007.

What is the difference between trade and export finance?

Trade and export finance are sometimes used interchangeably. However, it is important to explain the distinction and how the terms are used.

Trade finance is a term universally used for financing both imports and exports. In many mediums this will encapsulate invoice finance, purchase order finance, off balance sheet lending, letters of credit and similar funding instruments. Trade finance is usually spoken about in reference to cross border trade. However, it may also be domestic trade. It is commented on by many as being seen as a financing mechanism which is not well known in the market, but by having purchase orders and suppliers – there is a way of financing a trade through the use of a lender’s funds.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is trade financing important?

What does trade finance include?

  • Lending facilities
  • Issuing Letters of Credit (LCs)
  • Export factoring (companies receive funds against invoices or accounts receivable)
  • Forfaiting (purchasing the receivables or traded goods from an exporter)
  • Export credits (to reduce risks to funders when providing trade or supply chain finance)
  • Insurance (during delivery and shipping, also covers currency risk and exposure)

What are the methods of payment for trade finance

Cash Advances

As the least risky product for the seller, a cash advance requires payment to the exporter or seller before the goods or services have been shipped. Cash advances are very common with lower value orders, and helps provide exporters / sellers with up front cash to ship the goods, and no risk of late or no payment.

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Letters of Credit (LCs)

Letters of credit (LCs), also known as documentary credits are financial, legally binding instruments, issued by banks or specialist trade finance institutions, which pay the exporter on behalf of the buyer, if the terms specified in the LC are fulfilled.

An LC requires an importer and an exporter, with an issuing bank and a confirming (or advising) bank respectively. The financiers and their creditworthiness are crucial for this type of trade finance: it is called credit enhancement – the issuing and confirming bank replace the guarantee of payment from the importer and exporter. In this section, and in most cases, we may consider the importer as the buyer and the exporter as the seller.

Documentary collection

Documentary collections differ from a Letter of Credit (read our blog post on the differences between DCs and LCs).

In the case of DC, the exporter will request payment by presenting its shipping and collection documents to their remitting bank. The remitting bank then forwards these documents on to the bank of the importer. The importers bank will then pay the exporters bank, which will credit those funds to the exporter.

Open Accounts

An open account is a transaction where the importer pays the exporter 30 – 90 days after the goods have arrived from the exporter. This is obviously advantageous to the importer and carries substantial risk for the exporter – it often occurs if the relationship and trust between the two parties is strong.

Open accounts help increase competitiveness in export markets, and buyers often push for exporters and sellers to trade on open account terms. As a result, exporters may seek export finance to fund working capital whilst waiting for the payment.

Who are the providers of trade and export finance?

Retail and commercial banks

Some commercial banks have specialised trade finance divisions, which offer facilities to businesses. Commercial banks represent the majority share of financial institutions globally, although they range in size from small and niche banks to large multinational banks.

The banking services offered by trade finance commercial banks include: issuing letters of credit, accepting drafts and negotiating notes, bills of exchange and documentary collections. The advantage of larger commercial banks over smaller niche banks is twofold: their global presence (they may have foreign subsidiaries which makes L/C confirmation cost effective), and their credibility.

Alternative Finance and Non-Bank Funders

There are many types of financial institutions that do not use public deposits as a funding resource. Funding sources include crowd-funded (pooled) investment, private investment and public market sourced capital.

Traditional ‘receivables-backed finance’ has been disrupted by smaller finance platforms since the economic crisis. This has been driven by a decrease in appetite for risk by larger banks, which has opened the doors to agile smaller finance lenders, who can fill the gap. Private investment funds and larger banks provide capital to alternative trade financiers. Crowd-lending (peer to peer) finance has also entered the trade finance sector. In addition to this, new technologies to disrupt the somewhat lengthy application process for certain types of trade finance make it easier to assess risk, supply credit and documentation to importers and exporters.

What is the process for applying for trade finance?

1. Application

The initial ‘credit’ application drives the process when applying for credit. A trade finance application will require provision of the following:

  • Thorough introduction to the business, including a future vision (business plan), goals of the business and any significant accomplishments to date
  • Information on the key stakeholders/ directors including past experience and equity make up of the company
  • Introduction and an analysis of the product or service offered
  • Overview of the sector/ competitor landscape
  • Summary of anticipated results, including financial forecasts

Lenders will often ask for information on current assets or collateral that the business owns, including debt and overdrafts, assets that the company or directors own (property, equipment, invoices).

2. Evaluating the Application

The lender will undertake a full credit risk assessment of the documents that have been received. The credit analysis will usually involve inputting figures from the applicant’s income statement, balance sheet and cash flow documents. It will also take into consideration the collateral the SME can provide, and the quality of this.

The evaluation process will normally involve some kind of credit scoring process, taking into account any vulnerabilities such as the market the business is entering, probability of default and even the integrity and quality of management.

3. Negotiation

Eligible SMEs applying for trade finance can negotiate terms with lenders. An SME’s aim with a lender is to secure finance on the most favourable terms and price. Some of the terms that can be negotiated can include fees and fixed charges, as well as interest rates.

If you’re prepared and understand the structure of fees and charges, it can help you negotiate terms that are in your favour. Sometimes it may be a good idea to seek advice from your local trade body to avoid any risks, understand the charges and the structure of the loan and insurance.

4. The Approval Process and Documentation of a Loan

Typically, the account officer who initially deals with the applicant and collects all of the documentation will do an initial credit and risk analysis. This then goes to a specific committee or the next level of credit authority for approval. If the loan is agreed (on a preliminary basis) it goes to the legal team to ensure that collateral can be secured/ protected and to mitigate any risks in the case of default.

The loan document is a legally signed contract from both parties that consists of definitions, a full description of the finance facility that has been agreed (amount, duration, interest rates, currency and payment terms – both interest and non-interest charges). The conditions of a loan will also be included, which will state any obligations of the buyer and the lender, as well as what would happen in the case of any disputes or a default.

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Online share trading makes it easy and affordable for anyone to begin investing in shares through the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) and other markets. Learn how online share trading platforms work, how to make money from stocks, what kinds of fees you’ll pay and what all that confusing terminology means in this guide.

Not what you’re after? If you’re looking for other kinds of investment options, you can find an extensive list on our Investment’s Homepage, including term deposits, managed funds, superannuation and forex trading.

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Compare online share trading accounts

How does share trading work?

A company’s share price changes several times throughout the day as people buy and sell the shares, so most shareholders aim to buy shares when they’re low in cost and sell when the price of the share increases to make a profit.

Where do I trade shares in Australia?

For Australian-listed companies, all trading is done through the ASX, which lists more than 2,000 companies. Overseas shares are traded on a variety of exchanges, including the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the NASDAQ and the London Stock Exchange (LSE). If you want to buy shares in companies based outside of Australia, you can read our comprehensive guide to international share trading.

How do I buy shares in a company?

In the pre-Internet era, the only way to buy or sell shares was by hiring a full-service stockbroker, which could be expensive and time consuming. Today, investors can buy and sell shares themselves through online trading platforms with the click of a button.

Using an online platform is far cheaper for individual investors than using full-service brokers. When you buy shares online, you’ll pay a brokerage fee for each transaction, which typically ranges from $10 to $30 for ASX trades, as opposed to $50 to $150 for full-service brokers.

The standard ASX trading hours are 10am to 4pm AEST Monday to Friday, while other global exchanges keep similar hours. Along with shares, you can trade in index funds such as exchange traded funds (which track the performance of a range of stocks) and other products.

Keep in mind there’s a minimum first order of $500 when buying shares in a company on the ASX, however some trading apps get around this by offering fractional investing, just as others choose to impose a higher minimum limit. To buy shares online, simply open an account with an online share trading platform such as those listed in the table above.

For a more detailed guide on the process of buying shares, take a look at our 7 step guide to buying shares online.

Compare brokerage fees on Australian share trading accounts

Brokerage fees are an important factor when comparing trading platforms, however there are other things to consider too. While share trading accounts tend to highlight their lowest available brokerage fee, this is usually impacted by how often you trade and how much you trade. Some accounts also have monthly inactivity fees if you don’t place any trades for a specific period of time.

How can I make money from shares?

There are two main ways to make money from share trading:

  • Capital growth. If you can sell your shares for a higher price than what you paid for them you’ll make a profit. This is known as capital growth, given that your initial capital (your shares) has increased in value. This is possible both with short-term investments (where you sell the shares after a brief period of time) and over longer periods.
  • Dividends. Some (but not all) companies pay regular dividends to their shareholders, based on the amount of profit they make, which can provide an ongoing income stream plus tax advantages for certain investors. Dividend payments are a great form of passive income and it means investors may never need to sell their shares in order to make a profit.

What is a blue chip share?

Blue chip shares are large companies that are financially strong and have a solid track record of producing good earnings to shareholders. Typically, they are industry leaders and household brands. Investing in blue chip shares could be a good strategy for beginners, as they are usually considered to be very stable and have been in the market for a long time. For example the Big Four banks, CBA, NAB, ANZ and Westpac, are considered blue chip shares.

How can I choose the best share trading platform for me?

When choosing an online share trading platform, consider the following factors:

  • Broker fees. This is the fee that is charged every time you buy and sell shares. Brokers charge different fees depending on the product you’re trading (e.g. global shares, local shares, options), how often you trade in a month and the size of the trade.
  • Monthly fees. Some broker’s charge ongoing subscription fees or additional inactivity fees if you don’t make any trades within a certain period of time. This may or may not suit you depending on your trading requirements.
  • Availability of advice and research options. Online brokers sometimes offer market news and updates, as well as other research tools that will let you investigate the trading history of individual stocks.
  • Integration with bank accounts. Some services let you transfer money easily from your trading account to a transaction or savings account. Others offer linked debit cards to use with your accounts.
  • Access to global markets. If you want to invest in offshore exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), check what options are available with each service.
  • Foreign exchange fees. If you’re interested in trading global stocks, you’ll want to check what the foreign exchange (FX) fee is for converting your AUD to the foreign currency of choice.
  • Other trading options. Other products offered by some online brokers include forex, CFDs, managed funds and options trading.
  • Customer support. Check what level of customer support is available, what hours it’s available and if the support team is based locally in Australia. This is particularly important for new traders.

Ready to compare accounts and start trading? Go to the comparison table now.

Tips for online share trading

Here’s some tips to help get you started:

  • Read the news. It’s important to stay up-to-date with the broader economy, and learn how major events such as national elections impact the share price of various companies.
  • Research companies before buying. If you want to buy shares in a company, research as much as you can about the company before making your final decision. It’s a good idea to read the company’s annual reports and meeting minutes to learn what’s in the pipe-line, and what changes will be made that could affect their share price.
  • Consider blue chip companies. This is good strategy for people new to the share market, as blue-chip often have more stable returns, are less volatile and often pay dividends.
  • Diversify. Say you had $5,000 to invest in the share market. Rather than invest it all in one company, consider spreading it out across a few companies from different industries. Diversification will help lower your risk, and ensure you don’t have all your eggs in the one basket.

Australia’s Top Trading Partners

February 11, 2020 by Daniel Workman

by Flagpictures.org Nicknamed the Land Down Under, Australia is an island economy that strongly benefits from its close proximity to the vast markets of China and Japan which together represent over 40% of all Australian export sales.

From a global perspective, Australia shipped US$272.4 billion worth of products worldwide during 2020. That dollar amount reflects a 42.5% increase since 2020 and a 7.3% gain from 2020 to 2020.

Applying a continental lens, 79.9% of Australia exports by value were delivered to Asian countries while 9.2% were sold to importers in Europe. Australia shipped another 5% worth of goods to North America and fellow Oceania nations led by New Zealand and Papua New Guinea (4.3%). Smaller percentages went to Africa (1%) then Latin America excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean (0.6%).

Australia’s Top Trading Partners

Top 15

Below is a list showcasing 15 of Australia’s top trading partners, countries that imported the most Australian shipments by dollar value during 2020. Also shown is each import country’s percentage of total Australian exports.

  1. China: US$89.2 billion (32.7% of total Australian exports)
  2. Japan: $24.4 billion (9%)
  3. South Korea: $13.6 billion (5%)
  4. United Kingdom: $10.4 billion (3.8%)
  5. United States: $10 billion (3.7%)
  6. India: $9 billion (3.3%)
  7. New Zealand: $7.1 billion (2.6%)
  8. Taiwan: $6.8 billion (2.5%)
  9. Hong Kong: $5.3 billion (2%)
  10. Singapore: $5.3 billion (1.9%)
  11. Malaysia: $4.6 billion (1.7%)
  12. Vietnam: $4.2 billion (1.6%)
  13. Indonesia: $3.7 billion (1.3%)
  14. Thailand: $2.6 billion (0.9%)
  15. Germany: $2.1 billion (0.8%)

Approaching three-quarters (72.8%) of Australian exports in 2020 were delivered to the above 15 trade partners.

Leading the year-over-year increases consuming Australian exported goods were the United Kingdom (up 192%), China (up 20.4%), Vietnam (up 14.6%) then Singapore (up 8.7%).

The top decline was -46.9% for Thailand trailed by the -32.1% reduction by Hong Kong.

For the complete listing, see the section Searchable Datalist of Countries Importing Australia’s Exports near the bottom of this article.

Deficits

As defined by Investopedia, a country whose total value of all imported goods is higher than its value of all exports is said to have a negative trade balance or deficit.

It would be unrealistic for any exporting nation to expect across-the-board positive trade balances with all its importing partners. Similarly, that export country doesn’t necessarily post a negative trade balance with each individual partner with which it exchanges exports and imports.

Australia incurred the highest trade deficits with the following countries.

  1. United States: -US$15.1 billion (country-specific trade deficit in 2020)
  2. Germany: -$8 billion
  3. Thailand: -$7.5 billion
  4. Italy: -$4.4 billion
  5. France: -$3.2 billion
  6. Malaysia: -$3 billion
  7. Mexico: -$2 billion
  8. Singapore: -$1.8 billion
  9. Papua New Guinea: -$1.4 billion
  10. Spain: -$1.3 billion

Among Australia’s trading partners that cause the greatest negative trade balances, Australian deficits with Thailand (up 24%), Papua New Guinea (up 16.9%) and United States (up 7.8%) grew at the fastest pace from 2020 to 2020.

These cashflow deficiencies clearly indicate Australia’s competitive disadvantages with the above countries, but also represent key opportunities for Australia to develop country-specific strategies to strengthen its overall position in international trade.

Surpluses

Overall Australia generated a $58.2 billion surplus in 2020 up by 119.3% from $26.5 billion one year earlier.

Based on Investopedia’s definition of net importer, a country whose total value of all imported goods is lower than its value of all exports is said to have a positive trade balance or surplus.

Australia incurred the highest trade surpluses with the following countries.

  1. China: US$34.6 billion (country-specific trade surplus in 2020)
  2. Japan: $9.5 billion
  3. India: $5.8 billion
  4. South Korea: $5.6 billion
  5. United Kingdom: $5.4 billion
  6. Hong Kong: $4.9 billion
  7. Taiwan: $3.5 billion
  8. New Zealand: $1.7 billion
  9. Philippines: $1.5 billion
  10. Mozambique: $348.6 million

Among Australia’s trading partners that generate the greatest positive trade balances, Australian surpluses with China (up 80.9%), Philippines (up 40.2%) and South Korea (up 36.2%) grew at the fastest pace from 2020 to 2020.

In addition, Australia went from a -$1.8 billion deficit trading with the UK in 2020 to a $5.4 billion surplus for 2020.

These positive cashflow streams clearly indicate Australia’s competitive advantages with the above countries, but also represent key opportunities for Australia to develop country-specific strategies to optimize its overall position in international trade.

Companies

Companies Servicing Australian Trading Partners

Thirty-six Australian corporations rank among Forbes Global 2000. Below is a selected sample of the major Aussie companies that Forbes included:

  • BHP Billiton (diversified metals)
  • Fortescue Metals Group (iron, steel)
  • Woodside Petroleum (oil, gas)
  • Amcor (containers, packaging)
  • Santos (oil, gas)
  • Caltex Australia (oil, gas)
  • Orica (diversified metals)
  • Newcrest Mining (diversified metals)

According to IMPORTERS.com listings for Australian suppliers, the following are examples of companies that ship products from Australia to its trading partners around the globe. Shown within parenthesis are products that the Australian business provides.

  • Bullys Beef Pty Ltd (beef)
  • Cotton Tree Trading Pty Ltd (dairy products)
  • Harts Food And Beverages PL (coconut water)
  • Logreen Pty Ltd (food additives, vanilla beans)
  • Metabolic Food Company (breakfast cereal blends)
  • Platinum Direct (premium wines)
  • Rasile Global Importers P/L (food, beverages)
  • Scorex (meat, poultry)
  • Sunnyfresh Grapes Australia (grapes)
  • Waverley Australia Pty Ltd (blankets, rugs, quilts)

Searchable Datalist of Countries Importing Australia’s Exports

You can change the presentation order by clicking the triangle icon at the top of any of the columns below. The right-most shows the percentage change in value for each importing country since 2020.

Rank Importer 2020 Australian Exports 2020-9
1. China $89,157,198,000 +20.4%
2. Japan $24,444,883,000 -6.7%
3. South Korea $13,619,722,000 -0.003%
4. United Kingdom $10,418,512,000 +192.0%
5. United States $9,963,305,000 +7.8%
6. India $8,988,380,000 -11%
7. New Zealand $7,062,431,000 -0.5%
8. Taiwan $6,810,355,000 +2.3%
9. Hong Kong $5,333,455,000 -32.1%
10. Singapore $5,286,291,000 +8.7%
11. Malaysia $4,551,847,000 +0.3%
12. Vietnam $4,242,206,000 +14.6%
13. Indonesia $3,664,359,000 -14.6%
14. Thailand $2,561,647,000 -46.9%
15. Germany $2,078,446,000 +4.4%
16. Netherlands $2,067,205,000 -6.0%
17. Philippines $1,939,828,000 +23.4%
18. Papua New Guinea $1,477,682,000 -2.5%
19. Switzerland $1,316,301,000 +49.4%
20. United Arab Emirates $1,306,981,000 -0.01%
21. South Africa $1,051,332,000 -14.3%
22. France $1,005,816,000 +5.2%
23. Belgium $912,649,000 +36.8%
24. Canada $839,887,000 +0.1%
25. Brazil $665,852,000 -25.3%
26. Bangladesh $649,514,000 -4.5%
27. Saudi Arabia $536,328,000 +9.8%
28. Italy $455,056,000 -25.2%
29. Poland $407,971,000 +23.2%
30. Mozambique $352,820,000 -32.6%
31. Turkey $332,887,000 +2.3%
32. New Caledonia $331,537,000 +2.6%
33. Sweden $316,831,000 +29.6%
34. Fiji $310,447,000 -12.3%
35. Kuwait $310,306,000 +9.7%
36. Egypt $281,013,000 -1.7%
37. Qatar $261,795,000 -1.8%
38. Chile $240,609,000 +4.8%
39. Pakistan $234,979,000 -25.5%
40. Spain $232,382,000 -55.8%
41. Yemen $176,992,000 +27.6%
42. Israel $160,231,000 -7.9%
43. Mexico $159,326,000 +12.8%
44. Sri Lanka $157,993,000 -16.9%
45. Russia $156,736,000 +1.2%
46. Norway $132,568,000 +35.5%
47. Bahrain $114,223,000 -13.6%
48. Jordan $100,217,000 +5.3%
49. Myanmar $97,100,000 -22.4%
50. Oman $96,886,000 -9.6%
51. Czech Republic $91,255,000 -33%
52. Denmark $76,460,000 +5.2%
53. Mauritius $69,251,000 -6.2%
54. Slovenia $68,140,000 +122.5%
55. Argentina $66,371,000 -26.6%
56. Ghana $64,353,000 -0.7%
57. Ireland $63,312,000 -20.4%
58. Solomon Islands $63,022,000 -6.2%
59. Panama $62,316,000 -39.5%
60. Peru $61,390,000 +49.6%
61. Nigeria $60,135,000 -44.4%
62. Cambodia $59,783,000 +41.0%
63. Georgia $59,579,000 +11.8%
64. Ukraine $58,758,000 +16.3%
65. Vanuatu $56,788,000 -9.7%
66. Côte d’Ivoire $53,633,000 -5.9%
67. Finland $53,267,000 -13.3%
68. Kenya $51,708,000 -12.7%
69. Iran $43,792,000 -59.0%
70. Macao $43,754,000 -35.9%
71. Hungary $43,272,000 +57.2%
72. Maldives $41,125,000 +20.4%
73. Samoa $38,592,000 +49.1%
74. French Polynesia $38,467,000 -8.7%
75. Brunei Darussalam $36,703,000 -5.6%
76. Tanzania $34,981,000 -15.5%
77. Mongolia $33,257,000 +16.1%
78. Nauru $33,256,000 -9.2%
79. Nepal $28,410,000 -20.5%
80. Lebanon $26,501,000 +3.6%
81. Colombia $25,627,000 -34.2%
82. Trinidad and Tobago $24,752,000 +75.5%
83. Greece $24,733,000 +4.7%
84. Austria $24,104,000 -19.1%
85. Christmas Island $23,735,000 -11.4%
86. Jamaica $23,022,000 +13.9%
87. Romania $22,885,000 -34.9%
88. Timor-Leste $21,563,000 +43.7%
89. Senegal $18,950,000 -4.4%
90. Laos $18,849,000 -6.9%
91. Uruguay $18,395,000 +146.1%
92. Latvia $18,137,000 +50.5%
93. Iraq $18,034,000 -91%
94. Kazakhstan $17,744,000 +48.1%
95. Bulgaria $17,662,000 -64.8%
96. Tonga $14,220,000 -17.2%
97. Kiribati $14,202,000 -6.9%
98. Luxembourg $13,987,000 -67.6%
99. Suriname $12,574,000 +306.5%
100. US Minor Outlying Is $12,466,000 -15.3%

Research Sources:
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook Country Profiles. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Forbes Global 2000 rankings, The World’s Biggest Public Companies. Accessed on February 9, 2020

IMPORTERS.com The Online Market for G20 Importers, Australia Import Export Directory. Accessed on February 9, 2020

International Monetary Fund, Exchange Rates selected indicators (National Currency per U.S. dollar, period average). Accessed on February 9, 2020

International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database (GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity). Accessed on February 9, 2020

International Trade Centre, Trade Map. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Investopedia, Net Exports Definition. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Richest Country Reports, Key Statistics Powering Global Wealth. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Wikipedia, Gross domestic product. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Wikipedia, List of Companies of Australia. Accessed on January 15, 2020

Wikipedia, Purchasing power parity. Accessed on February 9, 2020

Zepol’s Company summary highlights by country. Accessed on February 9, 2020

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